[ut.chinese] Dec. 9

chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca (Bo Chi) (12/09/89)

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             * C h i n a   N e w s   D i g e s t *

		    (ND Canada Service)

                       -- Dec. 9 (I), 1989

Table of Contents
                                                                     # of Lines
1)  China News Digest and Chinese Students, seen by an American ....... 35
2)  Communism Dying? American's View .................................. 90 
3)  Meeting of the Leaders of the Front for Democratic China .......... 70

1.  China News Digest and Chinese Students, seen by an American
From: scott%sage@gargoyle.uchicago.edu (Scott Deerwester)
Date: Fri, 8 Dec 89 
(Center  for Information and Language Studies, University of Chicago)

We have also made copies of this digest and the China News Digest
available  to  our  East Asian Library.  The East Asian Librarian
has  generously  agreed  to  make  space available so that people
without  net access can read these.  We give three copies of each
issue.   Two  are available to the public and one is kept for the
library's archives.

If  my own experience is any guide, Chinese students haven't done
much  to communicate with American students and faculty about all
of  these  issues.  I am only peripherally aware of activities of
the  (apparently  quite  active) Chinese community at the Univer-
sity.   There is a quite natural tendency for a Chinese community
to  be  relatively  isolated from the larger University community
because  of  cultural  and  language  barriers.   Even so, if the
Chinese  community were to make better use of the   communication
channels  available  to it, it would achieve higher visibility of
its  aims,  and perhaps a higher degree of support.  I would have
thought  that identifying and cultivating support among Americans
who care about you would be an important goal.

This message was also posted to soc.culture.china.

2.  Communism Dying? American's View
From:    "J. Ding"                            <IZZYQ00@UCLAMVS.BITNET>
BY: LANGER, GARY ;  Associated Press Writer
DATELINE: NEW YOR (AP)   December 06, 1989
  Half  of  all  Americans believe communism is dying, twice the number who
thought  so  nine  months  ago,  a  Media General-Associated Press poll has
   The  survey found views of communism shifting radically as reform sweeps
Eastern  Europe,  with  far fewer Americans now seeing the Soviet Union and
its Warsaw Pact allies as a threat.
    But  more Americans feel threatened by China, where authorities in June
suppressed pro-democracy demonstrators. And the poll found no change in the
relatively high level of concern about communism in Latin America.
    The survey tracked opinion by repeating questions that first were asked
in  a Media General-Associated Press poll in March, a few months before the
democratic reform movement gained full force in Eastern Europe.
    The  change in opinion was striking. Then, for example, only 19 percent
said  communism  was  on  the decline around the world. In the new poll, 54
percent said communism was declining worldwide a nearly threefold increase.
    Similarly, 52 percent regarded communism in Eastern Europe as less of a
threat  to  U.S.  security  now than in the past; in March, just 28 percent
held that view. And 51 percent in the new poll saw Soviet communism as less
of a threat to the United States, up from 38 percent nine months ago.
    In  one  of their broadest measures, the surveys asked respondents: "In
your  view,  is communism dying, or not?" In March, 25 percent said yes. In
the new poll, 52 percent said yes.
    The  new  survey  was  conducted  Nov.  17-25,  as  many of the changes
reshaping  Eastern  Europe  were still evolving. The changes, some of which
culminated  after  the  poll was done, include establishment of a partially
non-communist government in Poland and the fall of Communist leaderships in
East Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    Optimism  was the greatest for East Germany, where on Nov. 9 the Berlin
Wall  was opened after 28 years of division from the West. Sixty percent in
the survey expected that within their lifetimes East Germans will enjoy the
same freedoms Americans have now.
    By  contrast,  only 26 percent expected American-style freedoms to come
within  their lifetimes to residents of the Soviet Union, where reforms are
progressing more slowly and the Communist party retains supremacy. And only
14  percent expected such freedoms in China, where soldiers staged a bloody
crackdown on dissidents near Tiananmen Square on June 3-4.
    Indeed,  during  the  past  nine months more increasing
                threat  to the United States, while those seeing
China as less of a threat fell from 34 percent in March to 20 percent now.
    While  fewer  Americans now believe China is moving away from communist
political  and  economic  systems, the opposite was true for Eastern Europe
and for the Soviet Union.
    Seventy-five  percent  believed  some of the Eastern European countries
are  moving away from communist economies, up from 47 percent in March. And
70  percent  believed  some  of  Eastern  Europe was dropping the communist
system, more than double the number in March.
    The  movement of opinion about the Soviet Union, like the change there,
was less abrupt. Sixty-seven percent believed the Soviets are leaving their
communist  economic system, up from 58 percent; and 48 percent believed the
Soviets are changing their political structure, up from 31 percent.
    As  in  the earlier poll, concern was greatest about communism in Latin
America:  Forty-six  percent  called  it an increasing threat to the United
States, virtually unchanged from March.
    Men and more highly educated respondents in the new poll were likeliest
to  believe  that communism is declining or even dying, and that the threat
to  the  United  States  posed  by  the  Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is
    The  survey,  conducted by telephone, had a margin of sampling error of
plus or minus 3 percentage points.
    Media  General  Inc.,  a communications company based in Richmond, Va.,
publishes  the Richmond Times-Dispatch, the Richmond News Leader, the Tampa
(Fla.)  Tribune  and  the  Winston-Salem  (N.C.)  Journal,  and operates TV
stations WXcL in Tampa, WCBD in Charleston, S.C., and WJKS in Jacksonville,
3.  Meeting of the Leaders of the Front for Democratic China
From:    "J. Ding"                            <IZZYQ00@UCLAMVS.BITNET>
BY: GOLDEN, ED ;  Associated Press Writer
DATELINE: NEWTON, Mass. (AP)   December 06, 1989
  Leaders  of  the  Chinese  democracy  movement opened a five-day planning
session  Wednesday  to  blunt criticism from the Chinese-American community
that they are disorganized.
   "Our  goal  is  to overturn one-pary rule by the Communist Party, not to
overthrow  the  Communist  Party.  We  want  to  use  peaceful, non-violent
measures," said Yan Jiaqi, chairman of the Front for a Democratic China.
    The Front is an umbrella organization of the Chinese democracy movement
that  has  been  criticized by Chinese students and residents in the United
States as lacking focus.
    "We  have  delegates from England, Australia, Hong Kong, France and the
United  States.  They  have all come to decide our future work. It's a very
important meeting," Yan said.
    Subjects  on the agenda included how to separate personal finances from
money donated since the student uprising was crushed by Chinese authorities
in Baijing's Tiananmen Square in June.
    Wu'er  Kaixi,  one  of the student leaders in Tiananmen Square now on a
one-year  fellowship  at  Harvard, has in particular been criticized by the
Chinese-language  press  in  the  United States for allegedly confusing his
personal finances with the front's finances.
    Representatives  from  Chinese  communities  around  the  world were to
report in an effort to lay out a specific program for the group's long-term
    An  afternoon,  closed-door meeting Wednesday was to consider relations
with Taiwan.
    "We  cannot accept Taiwanese independence. Taiwan is part of China. But
we  have  to  decide  our  policy  towards Taiwan's democratization and the
changes taking place there," Yan said. "We want to go to Taiwan anr see the
situation. We can't go from the mainland."
    Wan  Runnan,  founder  and  former president of a Peking-based computer
firm  and  general secretary of the FDC, has planned an exploratory trip to
Taiwan  to  speak  with  members of various political groups, including the
independent  opposition  party  that was formed in the last few years, Yang
    He said the FDC was not thinking about siding with any particular group
in  Taiwan  since  FDC  members  include  active members of Taiwan's ruling
party, the Kuomintang, as well as former members of the Communist Party.
    Another item to be addressed was the FDC's policy toward Tibet.
    The  Chinese  government  has  claimed sovereignty there since the 13th
century.  Tibetans claim to have a different culture and say they should be
independent from Chinese rule.
    Yan  met  this  week  in  Paris  with  the  Dalai  Lama, Tibet's exiled
religious  leader,  to  propose  a  solution  for  the problem. It involved
forming  a federation so that Tibet's relationship with China would be more
like a state, Yan said.
    Yan,  who  said  he offered the proposal on behalf of the FDC, said the
Dalai Lama offered no response.
    FDC  leaders said they would present a position when their meetings end
|  Editor: Gang Xu  (NDUS)        E-mail: gxu@kentvm.bitnet                 |
News    Transmission    chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca   (or)
--------------------    ---------------------
Local Editor: Bo Chi    chi@vlsi.waterloo.edu    
Sat Dec  9 11:12:27 EST 1989

chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca (Bo Chi) (12/09/89)

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             * C h i n a   N e w s   D i g e s t *

		    (ND Canada Service)

                       -- Dec. 9 (II), 1989

Table of Contents
                                                                # of Lines
 Headline News  ..................................................  50
 1) China To Close 10% Of Newspapers And Publishing Houses   .....  23
 2) State-Owned Enterprise Went Bankrupt  ........................  42
 3) Jailed Writer Allowed To See Ailing Relative   ...............  71
 4) Wang Bids For Power General Backs Reforms   ..................  94
Headline News
(1) U.S. State Dept. official said yesterday that no special delegate would
    be sent to PRC to report the U.S.-Soviet summit at this time.

    Before, after the summit,  a  special  envoy  would  go to Japan, South
    Korea and PR China to report the results of the summit.
                               From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                               Source: World Journal, 12/7/89

(2) Japnese government at the first  time  has loaned $35 millions to China
    since June 4th,  among  which  $25  millions  was  given  to Beijing TV
    Station, and the left will be  used  in a hosipital in Shanghai and two
    educational projects in Gan Su province.
                                From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                                Source: AP, 12/6/89

(3) 'People's Daily' criticized that Dalai  Lama had received a human right
    award which was awarded by  French  first  lady in Paris. The newspaper
    also reported the meeting between  Dala and 'the collaborator', blaming
    that Dala and Yan Jiaqi 'encouraged each other'.

    Beijing government meanwhile protested to East German for allowing Dala
    to visit East Berlin.
                                From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                                Source: World Journal, 12/7/89

(4) FDC leaders are having a meeting in Newton, Mass. to plan its long-term
    strategy and the relationship with Taiwan in the future.

    FDC also criticized Wuer Kaixi's statement about HR2712 bill, which was
    on 'World Journal' a few days  ago  and has drawn many critical remarks
    since then. Wuer apologized for the statement.
                               From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                               Source: World Journal, 12/7/89

(5) Sculptures of 14 solders, who were  killed during the June 4th military
    crackdown in Beijing, are put in 'The Military Museum' in Beijing.
                               From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                               Source: World Journal, 12/7/89

(6) A  Japanese  newspaper  reports  that   CCP  Party  chief  Jiang  Zemin
    criticized Soviet leader Gorbachev  as  the  initiator of East Europe's
    reforms.  Jiang  is  also  reported  blaming  the  former  East  German
    President Krenz as a traitor.

    It reported that Deng has recently ordered not to report too much about
                                   From: simone@nyspi.bitnet. (J. Yang)
                                   Source: World Journal, 12/7/89

1. China To Close 10% Of Newspapers And Publishing Houses
Source:  AP News

BEIJING - China plans to  shut  down  10%  of its newspapers and publishing
houses, the official Xinhua news agency said Thursday.

It is targeting for closure those printing pornography or material critical
of the Communist Party.

The Press and Publications  Administration  will  also merge newspapers and
periodicals that are similar in content, Xinhua said.

The  report  said  China   has   1,600  newspapers,  3,000  social  science
periodicals and 500 publishing houses. Many  are similar in nature and have
few readers.

In the past year, particularly after Communist leaders used troops to crush
the pro-democracy movement in June, the government has moved to consolidate
and exert greater control over the publishing industry.

Millions  of  publications  have  been   confiscated  and  destroyed  in  a
nationwide anti-pornography campaign.

2. State-Owned Enterprise Went Bankrupt
From:    "J. Ding"  <IZZYQ00@UCLAMVS.BITNET>
Source:  BEIJING (AP)   December 06, 1989

An  eastern  China  motorcycle    factory  has become the first state-owned
enterprise  to go bankrupt in the country's 40 years of Communist rule, the
official news agency reported Wednesday.

The   Nanchang  Motorccle  Factory    in   Jiangxi  province  was  declared
insolvent  by  a  local  court after accumulating losses equivalent to $1.4
million and debts of $2.6 million, the Xinhua News Agency said.

The  631  workers  in the factory will receive government relief funds, the
report said.

China began experimenting with  bankruptcy  in  several  cities in 1985. In
1986,  a  collectively  owned  explosion-proof  equipment  factory  in  the
northeastern  city  of  Shenyang  became  the nation's first to be declared

A  national  bankruptcy law went into effect on Nov. 1, 1988, prompting the
official  Economic   Daily  to  predict  that  at least 30,000 money-losing
enterprises with a workforce of millions would soon be out of business.

More  than  20  percent    of  large  state-run factories run at a loss and
must  be  heavily  subsidized  by  the government. Hundreds of thousands of
smaller firms are perennial money losers.

But  the  new  law    has    been largely ignored as banks resist declaring
debts  unpayable,  local  cities  seek  to  avoid  further  strain on their
inadequate  unemployment  systems,  and  party  officials  in  money-losing
enterprises use their influence to keep plants operating.

China's  current  hard-line  leadership    has    generally  given  a  cold
shoulder  to  free-market  reforms,  stressing that China must maintain its
state-run socialist economic system.

The  Xinhua  report  said    the    Jiangxi  court also declared bankrupt a
645-worker  collectively  owned cardboard box factory with debts and losses
totaling about $1.3 million.

It said the property of both factories would be auctioned by the court.

3. Jailed Writer Allowed To See Ailing Relative
From: hkucs!kwchan@uunet.UU.net
Source: South China Morning Post, Thursday, December 7, 1989

[Seth Faison in Beijing]

Dai Qing, a  leading  writer  who  has  been  jailed  since early July, was
recently allowed out for an afternoon  visit to her ailing father-in-law in
the Beijing hospital, sources close to her family said.

Dai, who looked thin but  otherwise  healthy,  was escorted to the hospital
one day last month by two officials from Qincheng prison, and return to her
cell a few hours later.

Contrary to earlier reports, Dai had  been  let  out of prison on bail, and
the sources said her family was  not  expecting her to be released any time

A respected writer and reporter for the Guangming Daily, Dai was, until her
arrest,  an  outspoken  critic   of   the  Communist  Party  on  Political,
environmental and feminist issues.

Many Chinese intellectuals could not believe she would spend a long time in
prison because of her well-known  political connections, which stemmed form
her upbringing as  a  step-daughter  in  the  home  of  late marshal, Mr Ye

Guangdong Governor, Mr  Ye  Xuanping,  son  of  the  late  marshal, wrote a
personal appeal in  the  summer  for  her  early  release, apparently to no

The father of Dai's husband is  seriously  ill with cancer. In October, her
husband told  authorities  that  the  elderly  man  had  asked  to  see his
daughter-in-law before he died.

Dai's husband  was  told  he  needed  to  produce  detailed statements from
hospital doctors to verify the seriousness of his father's condition before
the request could  be  considered.  The  statements  were  produced, but no
response given.

One day last month,  Dai's  husband  was  sitting silently with his father,
when she appeared at the  door  with  two  guards and a third, unidentified

Dai told her husband she was being  treated well in prison. He noticed that
her grey hair was growing back  and  offered  to bring her some of the hair
dye she customarily used.

"I will never dye my hair  as  long  as  I remain in prison," Dai allegedly

It was the first time she  had  seen  her husband since she was arrested at
their home in early July.

Dai was one of the  journalists  who  met  senior party officials to demand
guarantees for greater freedom of the press.

On May 14, she  made  an  impassioned  plea for hunger-striking students to
abandon their sit-in Tiananmen Square.

She publicly resigned her membership  from  the  Communist Party on June 4,
saying she wanted to distance herself  from politics and concentrate on her

She apparently made no attempt  to  hide  from the post-massacre purge that
was sure to include her, and  was  required at the Guangming Daily to write
detailed reports about her activities during the spring.

She was named in Beijing  mayor,  Mr  Chen Xitong's June report that listed
those intellectuals and activists considered by authorities to have engaged
in serious anti-government activity.

4. Wang Bids For Power General Backs Reforms
From: hkucs!kwchan@uunet.UU.net
Source: South China Morning Post, Thursday, December 7, 1989


The state Vice-President, General Wang Zhen, is emerging as one of the most
powerful patriarchs in China.

With the retirement of  senior  leader,  Mr  Deng Xiaoping, and the growing
sickness of economic theorist, Mr  Chen  Yun, General Wang, 81, is exerting
an influence second only to  that  of the President and military strongman,
Mr Yang Shang-kun.

Like Mr Deng, General  Wang  is  a  politician  who can appeal to different
factions  in  the  party.  A   conservative  ideologue,  General  Wang  has
nonetheless been a staunch supporter of China's open door policy.

Chinese newspapers in Beijing reported  yesterday that while inspecting the
Zhuhai Special Economic Zone  recently,  General  Wang  said the reform and
open policy should be further carried out in the zones.

According to the papers,  the  Vice-President  spoke  highly of the results
achieved by Zhuhai and  encouraged  local  officials  to develop the zone's
resources with foreign investment.

The patriarch said: "Furthering  the  reform  and  open policy is what Deng
Xiaoping has proposed time and again.

"It is also a strategic decision made by the party Central Committee."

The  Vice-President  said  local  cadres  must  not  adopt  a  wait-and-see
attitude. They must implement the reform policy without hesitation.

Analysts say General  Wang  is  trying  to  add  to  his political power by
appearing to be the protector  of  the  former associates of ousted liberal
leader, Mr Zhao Ziyang.

A regular visitor to  Shen-zhen,  Zhuhai  and  other  open cities along the
coast, General Wang has assured local  leaders their positions would not be
undermined because of their association with Mr Zhao.

Chinese sources say  General  Wang's  intercessions were partly responsible
for the Shenzhen mayor,  Mr  Li  Hao,  and  Zhuhai mayor, Mr Liang Guangda,
staying in power.

In early summer, Mr Liang came under investigation for using powers to seek
personal gain but he has since emerged unscathed.

The Vice-President is one  of  the  few  Beijing leaders who regularly meet
foreign business leaders.

As honorary president of  the  China Association for International Friendly
Contacts and honorary president  of the China-Japan Friendship Association,
General Wang is well-known to Japanese business executives.

Business analysts say General  Wang  has  shown  personal interest in large
projects in Guangdong, Hunan and Hainan provinces.

His support  was  one  of  the  factors  behind  Beijing's  approval of the
development of Hainan's  Yangpu  port  by  the  Japanese construction giant
Kumagai Gumi.

A Western  diplomat  said:  "General  Wang  has  a  personal  stake  in the
preservation of the coastal  policy  as  hammered  out by Deng Xiaoping and
Zhao Ziyang.

"After  all,  his  son,  Wang   Jun,   a  senior  manager  with  the  China
International Trust and Investment  Corp,  is  heavily involved in business
deals in the zones and open cities."

Because of  his  hard-line  conservatism  in  ideological matters, however,
General Wang is also popular with the party's right-wing.

He was the first leader who  proposed  using military force to suppress the
student movement in late 1986 and this year

Soon after the June 4 Tiananmen Square crackdown, the Vice-President openly
proposed sending  liberal  intellectuals  to  exile  in  far  away Xinjiang

Analysts say General Wang's standing  in  the  army  is very high. A career
soldier, the general became army  vice-chief  of the general staff as early
as 1955.

Shortly before the opening of the party fifth plenum in November, there was
speculation in Beijing that should there be a deadlock over the choice of a
new Central Military  Commission  chairman  or  vice-chairman, General Wang
might be a "dark horse" candidate.

Even though General Wang walks with the  aid  of a stick, he is believed to
be in robust health.

In the event of Mr Deng's incapacitation, the Vice-President, who enjoys Mr
Deng's total trust, could  play  the  role  of king-maker in the succession

|  Executive Editor:  Yaxiong Lin       E_mail:   aoyxl@asuacvax.bitnet  |
News    Transmission    chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca   (or)
--------------------    ---------------------
Local Editor: Bo Chi    chi@vlsi.waterloo.edu    
Sat Dec  9 20:44:46 EST 1989