[ut.chinese] Jan. 6

chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca (Bo Chi) (01/06/90)

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             * C h i n a   N e w s   D i g e s t *

		    (ND Canada Service)

                       -- Jan. 6 (I), 1990

Table of Contents
                                                                 No.  of Lines
 Brief News  ..........................................................  31
 1. Chinese Students Turn in Required Self-Criticism Reports  .........  49
 2. Lessons for China's Pro-democracy Exiles  .........................  86
 3. Developments in EE and SU: Ceausescu's "China Plan"  ..............  30

Brief News
Form: JBH Online (ISSN 0896-8241) and IZZYQ00@OAC.UCLA.EDU
Source: Radio Beijing, Radio Netherlands International and AP, 1/4-5/90

RB and RNI -- For the second time in a week, the Government of the  People's
Republic  of China has lodged an official protest with the French Government
over the latter's sale of new ships to Taiwan, calling the sale  an  act  of
"direct  interference  in  the internal affairs of China."  RNI reports that
the French Government says because the ships carry no  weapons,  their  sale
does not violate its agreements with the Chinese Government.  In its report,
however, RB mentions the ships' anti-submarine warfare capabilities.

AP -- The Bush administration  showed  a  "widespread  disregard  for  human
rights"  in  1989,  especially  surrounding events in China and El Salvador,
a human rights group, Human Rights Watch contended today.  In   China,   the
administration   "imposed   the  minimum  sanctions"  after officials  there
killed  hundreds  of  Chinese  last   summer  and  crashed  a  pro-democracy
movement,   the   report  said.  It  also  criticized a secret meeting  held
between Chinese officials and national security adviser Brent Scowcroft  and
Deputy  Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger.  "The  administration  thus
made clear that the killing and imprisonment of   pro-democracy   demonstra-
tors   would   have   no  material  impact  on its dealings with the Chinese
leadership," the report said.

    President Bush  notified Congress that the International Development As-
sociation,   a   World  Bank   subsidiary  that makes low-cost loans to poor
nations, had not made any new loans to China since June's  crackdown.   Bush
filed   the  report to comply with legislation enacted in November that puts
restrictions on U.S. payments to the fund.

1. Chinese Students Turn in Required Self-Criticism Reports
From: lin@Neon.Stanford.EDU
Source: Associated Press, 1/5/90

By Terril Jones, Associated Press Writer

Beijing -- After it crushed the democracy movement last spring, the  Chinese
government  ordered  university  students to write self-criticism reports on
their involvement. They have now turned them in - more  as  grudgingly  done
homework than soul-searching reflections.

    Students say they passed around a few "master" reports  before  the  De-
cember deadline, or plagiarized government propaganda to satisfy authorities
overseeing the political education exercise.

    "My report was nonsense. I just said silly things,  all  lies,"  said  a
student  at  Beijing University, which was at the forefront of the movement.
"I said I didn't agree with the hunger strike and posters, and that I didn't
participate in anything."

    "Soldiers rushed in to Beijing to enforce martial law as the  city  suf-
fered  a  serious  counter-[revolutionary] rebellion," the student's 11-page
report said.

    Such parroting of the official line was  reflected  in  other  students'
similarly  written  reports,  which  were  reprinted  for  several  weeks in
Beijing's two local newspapers, the Communist Party's Beijing Daily and  the
tabloid Beijing Evening News.

    The written testimonies have been the price the government has asked for
not  punishing the tens of thousands of students who took part in the spring

    Students say the key was to write the proper view  about  the  movement,
and  how their attitudes have changed since June, or the reports will be re-
turned for rewriting.

    "I think the reports should be written," a  student  at  Beijing  Normal
University,  another  activist  hotbed,  said  resignedly.  "It keeps things
quiet and then people won't bother you."

    "Of course, our leaders know a lot of us aren't serious,"  a  management
major  said.   Writing  the essays was nevertheless a necessary exercise for
staying on track for this student, who took part in many of  the  activities
around  Tiananmen Square but still plans to join the Communist Party.  "If I
want to go abroad, I'd better join," the student said. "It will be very use-
ful for my future, for me to get a good job."

2. Lessons for China's Pro-democracy Exiles
From: mok@hdsrus.enet.dec.com
Source: Asian Wall Street Journal Weekly, 1/1/90

By Jonathon Moses

Newton, Massachusetts, US -- There have been two models of political  exiles
in  China's  20th-century  history:  Mao  Tse-tung,  who  retreated into the
Chinese hinterland and led an army on Beijing, and Sun Yat-sen, who got word
of  a somewhat spontaneous uprising while on a fund-raising tour in the U.S.
and returned to take part in the rebellion that overthrew the Qing Dynasty.

    The current group of Chinese exiles, born  of  this  spring's  democracy
movement, is more like Dr Sun's.  But its inability, even after a tragedy on
the scale of the June 4 assault on student protestors, to create  a  unified
overseas  movement  calls  into  question whether the group will take on the
leadership of future revolts.

    The directions of the Paris-based Federation for a Democratic China  met
for five days recently in a motel in Newton, a suburb about seven miles west
of Boston.  It was the group's first major meeting since its  founding  ses-
sion  in  Paris  last  August;  since  then  the leaders have been busy with
speeches and fund raising.  It is too early to dismiss the  significance  of
these overseas activists to China's political future.

    Nonetheless, divisions among the exiles already  are  threatening  their
political relevance.  In fact, personality conflicts largely have undermined
the effort to create a plan of action.  Everyone agrees the movement must be
nonviolent  and  democratic;  beyond that, the political program is as unde-
fined as it was in August -- or even May, for that matter.

    What was supposed to be a strategic session turned out to be a forum for
picayune  arguments  over  bureaucratic matters such as which fax machine to

    The desire to put everything to a vote was evident at a press conference
following the five-day session.  Mr Yan said that after more than 100 votes,
the group reached 16 decisions.  He listed the area  of  each  decision  but
never described its nature.  Mr Yan's beginner status as the head of a demo-
cratic organization in the West became even clearer when he asked the  jour-
nalists  for  comments  and  criticism -- not questions, as usually expected
from the Western press.  The press, mostly overseas Chinese, seized the  op-
portunity to offer opinions.

    Most of the voting concerned matters as benign as whether members  trav-
eling  on  business  should receive $100 or $110 per diem, where to hold the
next meeting (San Francisco or Los Angeles), approving as accounting method,
and so on.

    Notably lacking was much discussion on ways to continue the movement  on
the  mainland,  although  there is plenty of money -- more than $400,000 has
been raised world-wide -- for various activities.  One positive  development
was  a decision to create a publication for the distribution in the People's
Republic, to be developed by Su  Xiaokang,  the  author  of  the  now-banned
"River Elegy."

    There also were battles over personal behavior, especially that of  stu-
dent  leader  Wuer  Kaixi.  According to those who attended some of the more
heated sessions, there was an effort to expel him from the organization.  In
the  end, the federation warned Mr Wuer Kaixi, who achieved world-wide cele-
brity for scolding Chinese Premier Li Peng  during  a  nationally  televised
meeting  last  May,  to  take  care that he separates his own views from the
movement's in public statements.  He also will take a  five-month  leave  of
absence  from  his post as vice president of the federation after completing
his tour of Japan and Australia.

    The group's supervisory committee said it found no evidence  of  corrup-
tion by Mr Wuer Kaixi.  Concern about his personal behavior has been rampant
since an article in the World Journal -- a New  York-based,  Taiwan-financed
Chinese  language  daily -- described an allegedly lavish life that included
thousand-dollar suits and lobster dinners for friends.  (The article was re-
printed last month in Beijing's government-run People's Daily.)

    Mr Wuer Kaixi now says he will use the leave of absence  to  concentrate
more  on his studies.  Professors have been warning him that unless he buck-
les down he many not be allowed to continue.  Other student leaders also are
spending  less time on political activity and more on schoolwork.  The move-
ment started by young students has for large part, at least in  exile,  been
taken over by grown-up intellectuals.

    The few student leaders in exile say they have a lot  to  learn.   "Just
imagine  if we went back to take over the government now," said Shen Tong, a
21-year-old Brandeis University student who was one of the leaders in  Beij-
ing University. "We don't know about democracy yet."

3. Developments in EE and SU: Ceausescu's "China Plan"
Source: Associated Press, 1/4/89

By Bryan Brumley, Associated Press Writer

Washington -- Executed  Romanian  dictator Nicolae Ceausescu once  had  con-
tingency  plans  to   flee   to  China and direct a guerrilla war from there
against anyone who tried to topple him,  his  former  head  of  intelligence

   Under  a  secret "Plan M," the Securitate secret police were to  disguise
themselves   as civilians, retreat to hidden bunkers and wage guerrilla war,
Ion Pacepa said in a telephone interview with The Associated Press.

    "Ceausescu's  refuge at that time was China, where he was to live  there
as  long  as  need  be,"  said  Pacepa.

    As  part of Plan M, said Pacepa, Romanian intelligence established  safe
houses  in  West Germany and two neutral countries, Austria and Switzerland,
to "give Ceausescu the means to wage a guerrilla war from abroad."

    The  safe  houses  were  occupied by Romanian "illegals,"  Romanian-born
agents  who had documents saying they were natives of the countries in which
they  were  living.  They  used  "burst  transmitters"  to  broadcast  coded
messages   in brief transmissions that are hard for intelligence agencies to
detect, he said, "there  were  a  dozen radio stations to illegally communi-
cate with the Securitate in Romania and Ceausescu in China."

|   Executive Editor:  Sanyee Tang, tang@riscc1.scripps.edu                |
News       Transmission    chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca   (or)
-----------------------    ---------------------
NDCadada Editor: Bo Chi    chi@vlsi.waterloo.edu    
Sat Jan  6 12:21:55 EST 1990