[ut.chinese] Feb. 22

chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca (Bo Chi) (02/22/90)

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                 * C h i n a   N e w s   D i g e s t *

                             (News General)

                       -- Feb. 22 (I), 1990

Table of Contents
                                                                     # of Lines
1. Reports of Human Rights in China etc. ............................... 121
2. China's Austerity Policies Taking Hold But Serious Side Effects ..... 19
3. Human Rights Abuses Still Widespread ................................ 80
1. Reports of Human Rights in China etc.
From: "Jian Ding" <IZZYQ00@OAC.UCLA.EDU>
BY: SCHWEID, BARRY ;  AP Diplomatic Writer
Source: WASHINGTON (AP)   February 20, 1990

  China,  Nicaragua and Iraq were sharply criticized by the State
Department  today   in   an   annual   human   rights  report  to
Congress  that  also documents beheadings andamputations in Saudi
Arabia and floggings in Iran.

   In   the   Israeli-occupied   West  Bank  and  Gaza Strip, the
report  said the human rights situation is "a source of deep con-
cern."  Palestinian  Arabs  are  in the 27th month of an uprising
against Israeli control.

    From  student  detentions  in Liberia to disappearances in El
Salvador,  the  1,641-page  report catalogues man's inhumanity to
man in virtually every conceivable way.

    In   Burma,   men   forced   to  walk ahead of army troops in
mine-infested  fields   are  blown  up.  In  Iran,  prisoners are
flogged and suspended from the ceiling, according to eyewitnesses
and human rights groups.

    Pro-democracy  demonstrators  were  gunned  down in Beijing's
Tiananmen  Square   June   3-4,   and   independent observers are
cited  as  challenging  the  official  toll  of  20 executions as
unrealistically low.

    The   report  also finds areas of improvement, most conspicu-
ously  in the Soviet  Union.  "Authorities  have  adopted  a more
forthcoming  approach  to foreign criticism of their human rights
record," the report says.

    And   yet,  though the top leadership no longer fosters anti-
Semitism  and  appears   embarrassed  by  it,  "there  has been a
sharp increase in popular expressions of anti-Semitic attitudes,"
the  report  relates. "Jews have been increasingly concerned over
the danger of violence."

    Israel,  a  democracy,  comes  in  for  little criticism out-
side of the situation in the occupied territories.

    A   total   of   432  Palestinians  were  reported  killed in
1989,  304  by  Israeli  security  forces and settlers and 128 by
other Israelis.

    While   the   Israeli   defense   forces  engaged in a severe
crackdown,  the  report   cites   a   significant   increase   in
Palestinian  violence  against Palestinians, spurred by a growing
Islamic fundamentalist Hamas movement.

    James   Zogby, executive director of the Arab American Insti-
tute,  called  the   report   a   brutal  indictment  of  Israeli
occupation,  said  pro-Israel groups  applied  pressure  to  mute
the criticism and that Congress should either  cut  the  $3  bil-
lion  in  aid  to  Israel  or  make it conditional on an improved

    The  Israeli Embassy in Washington issued a statement saying,
"Israel's  measures have not differed from those applied by other
democratic  countries  when   facing  violence  in  the  form  of
riots,  armed  assaults, murder and terror." Soldiers who violate
regulations are punished, the embassy said.

    Rep.    Gus    Yatron,    D-Pa.,    chairman   of  the  House
human  rights subcommittee, complimented the State Department for
a  report  that  "pulls  no punches  in  assessing  dismal  human
rights  records  of such dictatorial regimes as China and Iraq."

    Yatron  challenged  the Bush administration to match the rhe-
toric  with  "a  policy   which  places  America's  commitment to
human  rights  and democratic institutions  above offending ruth-
less  regimes,  which  the administration is currently seeking to
curry favor."

    His    statement    reflected    congressional  criticism  of
President  Bush  as  imposing   only   limited  sanctions against
China  after the Tiananmen Square crackdown in which hundreds and
possibly thousands were killed.

    The   report   found  a  dramatic  deterioration in the human
rights  climate in  China  in 1989. Apart from the Beijing massa-
cre,  the  army  killed scores of  Tibetans in March in Lhasa and
reports  of  torture  of persons accused of "counterrevolutionary
crimes"   are   persistent.  "Conditions  in  Chinese prisons are
invariably harsh and frequently degrading," Congress was told.

    Iraq's  human  rights  record is described as "abysmal," with
effective  opposition  to  government policy stifled and intelli-
gence services engaged in extensive surveillance.

    "The  freedoms  of speech and press and of assembly and asso-
ciation  are virtually  nonexistent,"  the  report  says.  "Other
important  human  rights problems  include  continuing disappear-
ances  and  arbitrary  detentions, lack of fair trial, widespread
interference with privacy, excessive use of force against Kurdish
civilians and an almost total lack of worker rights."
    In    Jordan,    where   martial   law  has  been  in  effect
since   1967,  intelligence  and  security  agencies  have  broad
surveillance  powers  and certificates of good conduct are needed
for all public jobs and for many in the private sector.

    In   Saudi Arabia, capital punishment is meted out for a wide
variety  of  crimes.  Beheading  is the usual method of execution
and,  in  some  cases, it was  followed  by  public  crucifixion.
In the first 10 months of 1989, at least  13  thieves  had  their
hands severed, including 11 non-Saudis, the report says.

    Nicaragua's   Sandinista   government,   which faces national
elections  on  Sunday,  is sharply criticized for maintaining "an
extensive   and  repressive  internal  security  apparatus"  that
includes  surveillance  and infiltration of the political opposi-

    "Political   and   extrajudicial   killings   are still being
reported, the political    opposition   still   suffers   consid-
erable   harassment   and intimidation,  the government continues
to  hold  political prisoners and the writ of the security forces
still runs deep and wide," the report says.

2. China's Austerity Policies Taking Hold But Serious Side Effects
From: Young Chul KIM,
IBRD 473 - 3826 CAFGM at IBRDVM1
Source IMF Press Summary  2/22/90

AP  DJ reported from Beijing that China's State Statistics Bureau
spokesman  Zhang  Zhongji  told  a news conference that China has
cooled  its  overheated  economy, but at the cost of rising unem-
ployment,  budget-crippling  subsidies,  and increased industrial

He  said 1989 economic developments were encouraging, citing more
manageable  growth,  a  decline in spending, and a drop in infla-
tion. But old and new problems make the task of economic rectifi-
cation even more difficult.

AFP  reported  from Beijing that Xinhua said natural catastrophes
cost  China  $11B  last year. Drought, floods, and earthquakes in
particular, cut farm output by at least 30%.

3. Human Rights Abuses Still Widespread
From: Charlie Li  <QiangLi@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU>
Source: The China World at Florida Atlantic University
February 19, 1990

WASHINGTON  (FEB.  19) UPI -  A survey of human rights around the
world  shows  that  the  revolution  in Eastern Europe has barely
moved the needle in  terms of the number of people who are living
in freedom.

   In  the  annual  survey  by Freedom House, an independent U.S.
organization,  Executive  Director  Bruce McColm puts the current
world population at 5.2 billion.

   Of those, according to the survey, 39 percent of the people in
the  world  are  now "free," 22 percent are "partly free," and 39
percent are "not free."

   That  is  only  a slight change from one year earlier, when 39
percent  were  "free," 20 percent were "partly free," and 41 per-
cent were "not free."

   In  the  definitions  of the survey, the Soviet Union, despite
its  political  changes,  remains  listed as "not free," since it
continues to be a one-party state where citizens do not enjoy the
right to elect the head of their state, and civil liberties and a
free press remain in question.

   South  Africa,  on the other hand, is listed as "partly free,"
since  whites  have  democratic rights and there is a free press,
with  the   exception of limits on news about racial and security

   Hungary,  as an example of the Eastern European revolution, is
listed  as  "partly  free" because its freedoms have not yet been
totally codified into law.

   The  State  Department  is  to publish its own survey of human
rights  around  the  world  on  Wednesday. In one section of that
report, the State  Department is much more critical of China than
the White House has been.

   A  human rights report by Asia Watch calls the lifting of mar-
tial law in China a sham designed for U.S. consumption.

   In  the  report  called  "Punishment Season," Asia Watch says,
"Having  bludgeoned the population of Beijing into temporary sub-
mission,  and  having  installed a fearsome network of vigilante,
police  and paramilitary forces throughout the Chinese capital in
order  to maintain the repression, the authorities can now easily
afford to dispense with the formal institution of martial law."

   Asia  Watch  said  that President Bush, "anxious to be able to
show some kind of result from his excessively conciliatory policy
toward  Beijing,"  was  too uncritical about minor changes by the
Chinese government.

   Asia Watch called the recent release of 573 selected political
prisoners  "a  publicity  stunt"  to disguise the fact that up to
30,000 political prisoners remain in jail.

   Freedom  House,  in  its  survey, calls 1989 "the most pivotal
year  of  the  post-war  period" in terms of human rights, but it
described the advances as "fragile and still reversible."

   Looking  back  over  the  past 17 years, when the organization
began  its  global  survey,  there has been a steady trend toward
freedom, but it has been statistically slow since both the Soviet
Union  and  China, with a combined population of approximately 25
percent of the world, remain in the "not free" category.

   In  1973,  the  survey  called 32 percent of the world "free,"
compared to 39 percent in in 1990.  In 1973, Freedom House judged
47  percent  of  the  world "not free," compared to 1990 when the
figure was 39 percent.

   In  the  last year, the Freedom House survey said that China's
crushing  of the democratic reform was a major setback, and there
were other reverses, including Burma, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

|  China News Digest Subscription (Xinmeng Liao): xliao@ccm.umanitoba.ca  |
|  China News Digest Executive Editor: (Bo Chi)  chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca    | 

Thu Feb 22 11:32:22 EST 1990

chi@VLSI.WATERLOO.EDU (02/23/90)

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                 * C h i n a   N e w s   D i g e s t *

                             (News General)

                       -- Feb. 22 (II), 1990

Table of Contents
                                                                     # of Lines
1. (US) Chinese Students Organize Visiting Delegation .................... 61
2. US State Department Criticizes China Government -- Massacre ........... 91
3. China Law School President Forced to Resign ........................... 82
1. (US) Chinese Students Organize Visiting Delegation
From: "Jian Ding" <IZZYQ00@OAC.UCLA.EDU>
BY: LOCKE, MICHELLE ;  Associated Press Writer
Source: AMHERST, Mass. (AP)   February 21, 1990

  An   organizer  hopes  to  lead  the first announced delegation
of  Chinese  students  to return home since the killing of scores
of people in Tiananmen Square.

   "I   believe   that  this  is the right cause. We have to open
the  door to interaction.  Without  interaction we can do nothing
with  the movement back home,"  said  Matthew  Huang,  the leader
of  the  proposed  delegation  by the Independent  Federation  of
Chinese  Students  and  Scholars in the United States.

    The   federation   recently  voted  to  seek  permission  for
a visiting delegation.

    Letters  have been sent to the Chinese Embassy in Washington,
D.C.,  but there  has  been  no response so far. Huang, a student
at  the  University  of  Massachusetts,   said  it's possible the
government will refuse to allow the students to return.

    "We  do  want to go back and we think someone should take the
risk,"  said  Shen  Tong, one of the leaders in the pro-democracy
movement  in  Beijing  who  eluded capture and is now studying at
Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass.

    He said Wednesday he was willing to take that risk.

    "This   kind   of   open  attitude  can  basically  challenge
the Chinese government's  closed-door  policy,"  he  said.  "It's
also  for  the  American  government.   We  want to show the Bush
administration we didn't give up our struggle."

    The   administration,  asserting  that  it  is  important  to
maintain  a  dialogue   with   China to encourage liberalization,
last  month  vetoed a bill protecting  Chinese  students  against
deportation.   Bush   has   twice  sent  high-level emissaries to
China since last summer's bloody suppression.

    A  statement  by  the  student  federation  said  reasons for
its visit include  investigating  what  happened  to those killed
when  soldiers moved into  Beijing's  Tiananmen  Square  on  June
4, as well as seeing "the real China, normal or not."

    Huang,   a   27-year-old  biology  student,  said he's scared
about what may happen on a trip home.

    "We   will   try  our  best to go back and maybe we will face
some  danger,"  Huang said. "One thing is for certain is we won't
trade our principles.'

    Officials   at   the   Chinese   Embassy  in  Washington  did
not return a telephone call on Wednesday.

    The  crackdown  of the pro-democracy movement was followed by

an  outcry  by   Chinese  students studying in the United States.
Many  were  colleagues  of  the  students leading the movement in

2. US State Department Criticizes China Government -- Massacre
From: "Jian Ding" <IZZYQ00@OAC.UCLA.EDU>
Source: WASHINGTON (UPI)   February 21, 1990

  The   State  Department's annual report on human rights sharply
criticized the  Chinese  government  Wednesday  for  the  "massa-
cre"   of  hundreds and possibly  thousands of pro-democracy pro-
testers  in  Tiananmen Square and the later execution of at least
20 more pro-Democracy activists.

   The    Chinese   government  has  denied  the  executions  and
has   never  officially   acknowledged  any  widespread  killings
occurred  when  tanks and troops were called in to crush the pro-
democracy movement last June.

    The   harsh   words   by   the  State Department Human Rights
bureau, in its annual  "Country  Reports,"  was  in  direct  con-
trast   to   the  much  milder  language   used   by   the   Bush
administration  in  recent  comments  on the situation in China.
    "The human rights climate in China deterioriated dramatically
in 1989," the State Department report concluded.

    The   account,   based   on  reports  from U.S. diplomats and
other  sources, said  "at  least  several  hundred,  and possibly
thousands, of people were killed in Beijing on June 3-4."

    "The   Beijing  massacre,"  the report said, "was followed by
a  drastic,  country-wide  crackdown  on  participants,  support-
ers,   and   sympathizers.  Thousands  were  arrested and about a
score are known to have been executed following trials which fell
far short of international standards."

    The   State  Department  placed  the  blame  for the killings
squarely  at  the  feet  of  the  Chinese  leadership:  "Credible
evidence  indicates  that  the  leadership  deliberately  ordered
the   use   of   lethal   force  to suppress peaceful  demonstra-
tions.   The   excessive  force  employed  resulted in the deaths
of many unarmed civilians."

    Senate   Democratic   leader   George   Mitchell   said   the
report   "is   a  devastating   indictment  of  human  rights  in
China.  It  is  an  equally devastating  indictment  of  the pol-
icies of the Bush administration toward China."

    Mitchell said the report shows that China pursues a policy of
violating  the   rights   of   its citizens "in a way that should
shock the conscience of the world."

    "It   does  shock the conscience of Americans. Unfortunately,
it  does  not  shock the executive branch of the American govern-
ment," Mitchell said.

    White   House   press   secretary   Marlin Fitzwater insisted
there  was  "no inconsistency"  between the report's findings and
Bush's  decision to try to keep open lines of diplomatic communi-
cation between Washington and Beijing.

    And  at  the  House  Foreign Affairs Committee's human rights
subcommittee,  members   praised   the   candid   nature  of  the
report by Richard Schifter, assistant  secretary  of  states  for
human  rights,  but  criticized  the administration's position on

    Subcommittee  Chairman  Gus Yatron, D-Pa., told Schifter that
while  the  report  "pulls  no punches," that current U.S. policy
toward  China  and  also toward  Iraq "leaves the impression that
the  United  States has placed human rights on the back burner of
American foreign policy."

    And   Rep.   Tom   Lantos,  D-Calif., said, "Perhaps the most
disappointing  aspect   of   the  report  are its best pages, the
report  on  China,  because the human  rights  report  on  China,
which   I   commend and applaud, reflect a schizophrenic approach
on the part of this amdinistration to China."

    But   Schifter   said  that  U.S. human rights goals "are not
advanced  by  cutting all ties" with countries that violate human
rights. -

    Elsewhere,  the report said 1989 "may well go down in history
books  as a watershed year regarding the worldwide cause of human
rights," particularly in Eastern Europe.

    Regarding  the  Soviet  Union,  the report commented, "Though
reformers  strengthened   their   hold  on the top echelon of the
Soviet  government,  'new  thinking' has failed to penetrate many
parts of the Soviet bureaucracy."
    ... ...
3. China Law School President Forced to Resign
From: "Jian Ding" <IZZYQ00@OAC.UCLA.EDU>
Source: BEIJING (UPI)   February 21, 1990

  The  president  of  a  leading  law school was forced to resign
for  being  overly   sympathetic   to  his  students  during last
spring's  protest  movement,  Chinese  and  Western  sources said

   Jiang   Ping,  the liberal president of China Politics and Law
University in Beijing, was ordered to resign last week. Jiang had
originally  expressed  a  wish  to  quit his post last summer but
was persuaded by his students to stay on, the sources said.

    Conservative   ideologues   criticized  Jiang,  60, for being
too lenient with  many students who demonstrated in last spring's
massive pro-democracy protests, the sources said.

    Politics   and   Law   University,   one  of five law schools
formed  in  the 1950s  under  the  Ministry  of  Justice,  played
a  leading  role  in the student-led pro-democracy movement.

    At   the  height  of  the protests, young teachers from Poli-
tics  and  Law  staged   a  hunger  strike  in  front  of  Zhong-
nanhai,  China's  leadership compound.

    Several teachers from the university were arrested during the
crackdown  that   followed   the  army's  bloody  suppression  of
the  protests,  and  some previously  active  students  say  they
still  undergo  occasional  police interrogations.

    Jiang   was   told   to   step   down  by Ministry of Justice
officials, but sources   said   the   officials  apparently  were
pressured   from   higher  authorities,  possibly  the  Communist
Party's Political and Legal Leading Group headed by ruling Polit-
buro member Qiao Shi.

    The  Political  and  Legal Group has no direct authority over
the  Ministry of  Justice, which is supervised by the State Coun-
cil,  China's  Cabinet. But the  party's  legal group counts Jus-
tice Minister Cai Cheng among its seven members.
    Students   at  Politics  and  Law say they hold Jiang in high
regard  for  trying  to protect them during continuing investiga-
tions in connection with the protests.

    Sources  said  authorities  appeared  to  have  timed Jiang's
ouster  to  coincide  with  the last week of the lunar New Year's
academic break so as to avoid campus unrest.

    "They're   being  careful  about  Jiang Ping," said a foreign
legal expert.  "They don't want any problems with the students."

    Jiang,   who  has  spoken  in  favor  of  legal  reform, will
retain  his  positions   as   standing  committee  member  of the
National  People's  Congress,  China's  rubber-stamp  Parliament,
and co-chairman of the NPC's legislative affairs commission.

    He   will  also  continue to teach graduate and undergraduate
classes at Politics and Law, sources said.

    Jiang,   a  Communist Party member educated in Moscow, shared
the fate of hundreds of thousands of Chinese intellectuals in the
late  1950s. Branded a "rightist"  in  1957,  he  spent two years
in a labor camp, where he lost a leg.

    He  was  fully  rehabilitated in 1979 and was later appointed
president  of  Politics  and  Law  University,  formerly known as
the Beijing Institute of Political Science and Law.

    Sources   say  the  university has not yet replaced Jiang and
the  search  for a suitable president will probably take "several

    "They   can't  find the appropriate person. They need someone
acceptable  to the Ministry of Justice," said a source, who asked
not to be identified.

    A  university  spokesman  contacted  by  telephone  said exe-
cutive  vice  president  Chen  Guangzhong  is  temporarily  over-
seeing  day-to-day campus administration.

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|  China News Digest Executive Editor: (Bo Chi)   chi@vlsi.uwaterloo.edu  |
Thu Feb 22 14:48:08 EST 1990