[nccn.social] Dioxin & PCB Pollution: An Update

john@yunccn.UUCP (John Hummel) (12/16/88)

Greetings from yunccn! John to all NCCN members!

  I am a new NCCN project worker here at York University.  Computers 
are new to me so I hope you will be patient with me until I get the 
hang of it.
  Before working on this computer project, most of my activities were
conected with environmental and human rights issues.  In particular, I
focused on issues where the lives and traditional lands of First Nations
were under attack from corporations and government.  This included many
First Nation's bands.  Most of what I did was: tracking down information
that might be useful for the people in their defence of Land & Life,
getting the information to the people, informing and educating the general
public on these many issues and trying to establish links between Native
peoples and my own people so that we can begin to work together.

  Environmental issues seemed to be a good starting point.  Some possible
common ground for people to meet and begin to try and stop some of this
destruction which effects us all.  So, I worked alot on environmental 
issues e.g. water diverion schemes like GRAND Canal, the proposed plutonium
flights over Northern Canada, pollution from pulp and paper mills, hydro-
electric mega-projects like James Bay Project Phase II, uranium mining and 
more recently, PCB pollution.  All these things clearly will damage the 
natural world, Native peoples and people all over.

  Also, in association with the Grassy Narrows Band, Canadian Alliance 
in Solidarity with the Native Peoples (CASNP), Leonard Peltier Defence 
Committee and many other bands and Native organizations, I worked on many 
sovereignty issues.  The struggles of the Lubicon Indian Band, Hopi and
Dene at Big Mountain, Lac La Hache Band in Saskatchewan and Grassy Narrows
Band in Ontario are some of the struggles I participated in.  These are all 
sovereignty issues but they are also environmental issues.  Environmental 
issues are not separate from sovereignty issues.  If the traditional people 
are cleared from their lands and if First Nations sovereignty is not
respected then the corporations will be free to do major resource extraction
on their own terms and the result is likely to be the destruction of Land &
Life on a large scale.  This will effect all of us.  This is why it makes
sense for environmental groups to support Native People in their demands for 
sovereignty.  This is the common ground where alliances could happen and
then we might have a real chance to protect and honour Land & Life and really
learn from each other.

  There are many meeting points and perhaps environment is a good place 
to start.  For example, WATER.  Each of us is mostly made of WATER and all
the plants and animals that we eat depend on clean, pure WATER.  Without
WATER we are nothing.  That includes everybody!  So, perhaps water could
be something that all the people could come together on.  "WATER FOR LIFE"
--this has brought people together before and many good things came from it!

  Anyway, this is a little introduction of who is sending you things in 
your computer.  For my next news bulletin I'll try and send information on
the PCB pollution issue which is effecting Native communities e.g. at Big
Trout Lake and also non-native communities e.g. the community in Quebec where
they had the recent PCB warehouse fire.  My next broadcast should include
sources of information on PCB storage sites in Ontario, health studies of
Native communities and contacts for information and action on this timely
subject.  That's all for now.


   					      John Hummel



                     **UPDATED VERSION**

Here are some of the key "Active" Hazardous Waste Dump Sites in the
Fort Frances Area: A610101

Here are some of the key "Closed" Hazardous Waste Dump Sites in the
Fort Frances Area: A610008

    All of the above numbers are "Site Numbers" for waste disposal sites
in Ontario. I obtained all of these "Site Numbers" (except the one
with a * beside it) from the document "Ontario Ministry of the Environment
Waste Disposal Site Inventory"May 1988, By: Ontario Ministry of the 
Environment.There are many other waste sites in the Rainy River district.
The above list only includes the sites I could identify in the Fort Frances

    Site Number 610103 came from the document: "Ontario Ministry of the
Environment Waste Site Inventories"July 1986, By: Ontario Ministry of
the Environment Waste Management Branch.

    To obtain detailed information about exact locations and content
of these waste sites, as well as information about wether they are
leaking, contact: Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Northwestern
Region,Regional & District Office, P.O. Box 5000, 435 James St. S.,
Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7C 5G6
Telephone: Regional Office (807) 475-1205

Here are a few things which should be kept in mind while investigating
these sites:
1)"Tests have revealed 210 parts per trillion of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most
toxic form of dioxin, in the primary settling lagoon at Boise Cascade's
pulp and paper mill in Fort Frances" (MOE Press Release May 2, 1986)
2)2,3,7,8-TCDD dioxin was found "in sludge from Boise Cascade's secondary
treatment system in Fort Frances" (MOE Press Release July 17, 1986)

3)"Sampling of 50 fish in the Rainy River system below the Boise Cascade
mill in Fort Frances revealed 2,3,7,8-TCDD in 16 of 42 fish at levels of
1 to 9 parts per trillion." (MOE Press Release July 17,1986)

4)"There are no "safe" levels of TCDD. Every dose tested in laboratory 
animals has resulted in increased levels of cancer, birth defects and
other reproductive problems, and in damage to the body's immune system"
(No Margin of Safety 1987)

5)"Because dioxin will remain for many years in aquatic sediments and
bioaccumulates readily in aquatic plant and animal life, dioxin contam-
ination of lakes and rivers is particularly alarming. Continuous 
discharges of even small amounts of dioxin build up in sediments, from
which aquatic plants and fish can accumulate up to 30,000 times the
sediment levels"(No Margin of Safety 1987)

6) Members of First Nations in the Fort Frances area eat fish and drink 

7)"The sludge is disposed of at approved landfill sites."(MOE Press Release
July 17, 1986)

8)"The environment ministry also tested leachate from a closed Boise
Cascade sludge disposal site located in Miscampbell Township just outside
Fort Frances.No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was found at a detection level of 20 parts per
quadrillion ---"(MOE Press Release July 17, 1986)
   The use of the phrase "also tested leachate" may indicate that there
 is a leak. If there was no leak then they wouldn't have been able to test

9) The Active waste dump sites A610101 and A610301 were both clasified as
B4 ie. mainly hazardous to the environment in the 1986 inventory. In the
May 1988 inventory their status has been changed to A2 and A4 respectivley.
The "A" category indicates the highest hazard to humans. So, it means that
they must have done testing recently and reports should be available.

10)The Closed waste dump site 610103 apeared on the 1986 inventory but
was not present in the May 1988 inventory. Dumps don't just dissapear.

11)The areas mentioned are in the vacinity of Fort Frances and Rainy Lake.

12)There are several First Nation Bands which may eat fish or get their
drinking water from the Fort Frances/Rainy Lake Area: Couchiching Band,
Stangecoming Band, Naicatchewenin Band, Seine River Band, Manitou Rapids,
and possibly others.

13) At "Couchiching Band outside Fort Frances people are dying and have 
died of cancer. There is something definitely wrong within that
geographical area.Countless peoples have died."(Letter from Rudy Bruyere,
Treaty#3 Health Policy Analyst)

14)An essential document for a better understanding of the whole Pulp Mill/
Dioxin/Toxic Waste Dump Site situation is:"No Margin of Safety: A
Preliminary Report on Dioxin Pollution and the Need For Emergency Action in
the Pulp and Paper Industry"1987, By: C. van Strum & P. Merrell, 100 pp.,

-this document details what chemical pollutants are comming out of pulp and
paper mills in Ontario, Canada and the U.S.A. and explains the effects on
people, plants and animals. The main focus of the report is on cancer 
causing Dioxin e.g. at the Pulp and Paper Mill at Fort Frances, Ontario
and in fish nearby.

-To obtain this useful document write or telephone: A. Jay Palter Green-
peace (Toronto), 578 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6G 1K1
Telephone: (416) 538-6470, FAX: (416) 968-9522, Note: if you FAX a mes-
sage please make sure you put "Attn:Greenpeace-Toronto" on your FAX

15) Here are two useful books that would be alot of use in investigating
    pollution from the pulp & paper industry, toxic dump sites, and 
    possible health effects e.g. cancer.

    a) "No Safe Place", By: Warner Troyer Clarke, Irwin & Company Ltd.,
    Toronto/Vancouver 1977   ISBN 0-7720-1117-6

    -an expose of about the pollution of the Wabigoon River in North-
    western Ontario by a Pulp & Paper mill at Dryden. The effects on
    the Native communities of Whitedog and Grassy Narrows are detailed
    and there are interviews with workers at the mill who describe
    how they dumped raw human sewage straight into the river(from 1500
    men), unsafely stored toxic waste in a pit, and fooled the environ-
    ment people into thinking that the efluent from the mill was safer
    than it was by releasing water from the dam above the mill and
    thus making water samples apear safer than they were

   b)"The Health Detective's Handbook",edited by Marvin S. Legator, 
     Barbara L. Harper and Michael J.Scott, is available in paperback
     at bookstores or from the publisher for $12.95 (U.S. funds) plus
     $2 shipping. Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press, 701 West
     40th Street, Suite 275, Baltimore, Maryland 21211 U.S.A.
     Telephone: (301)338-6956
   - this book is like a kit for investigating suspected environmental
   risks and for securing - forcing, if necessary - responsible action
   from government officials and generators of toxic waste. This handbook
   tells how an ordinary person can investigate things like high numbers
   of cancer deaths in their area, get the proof together and bring about
   positive change to stop the pollution which caused the cancer. A man
   who did that very thing tells his story in this book.

16) Here are several groups that have ALOT of information on Dioxin and
    other Toxic pollutants:

             a) Agent Orange Victims International,
                27 Washington Sq. North, New York, NY
                10011, U.S.A.
                Telephone: (212) 460-5770

             b) Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes,
                P.O. Box 926, Arlington, VA 22216, U.S.A.
                Telephone: (703) 276-7070
             c) Environmental Hazards Management Institute,
                P.O. Box 932, 10 Newmarket Road,
                Durham, NH 03824, U.S.A.
                Telephone: (603) 868- 1496

             d) Citizens' Network on Waste Management,
                139 Waterloo Street, Kitchener, Ontario,
                Telephone: (519) 744-7503

             e) EHMI, Box 283, Portsmouth, New Hampshire
                03801, U.S.A.                  

17) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States found
    high levels of Dioxin in Rainy River fish.---"after EPA reported its
    National Dioxin Study results showing up to 85 parts-per-trillion
    dioxin in Rainy River fish during 1985; because the Rainy River forms
    the border between the U.S. and Ontario, Canada along the northern 
    Minnesota boundary, the Ontario government was also informed of the
    Rainy River fish results, but chose not to issue any fish advisories"
    (No Margin of Safety)

18) The Ontario Environment Network publishes a document called the
    "Environment Resource Book" which contains the addresses, telephone
     numbers and contact people for 306 environmental groups in Ontario.
     Also included in this resource book is a description of each groups
     activities and a list of resources on environmental issues and how
     to obtain them. The Ontario Environment Network is linked by computer
     to environmental and social/justice groups all over the country.
     The resource book is esential for gathering information on pollution 
     issues and to know who to contact for forming alliances to stop this
     pollution that is going on.

To obtain a copy of the "Environmental Resource Book" write or telephone:

                Ontario Environment Network,     
                456 Spadina Avenue,
                2nd Floor,
                Toronto, Ontario,
                Canada M5T 2G8

                Telephone: (416) 925-1322

     The Price for the "Environmental Resource Book" is: $6.00 + 60
     cents for postage.

Well---Hope this information is of use to you to eliminate pollution
in the Fort Frances/Rainy River area. Also, any comments, suggestions
would be most welcome and if you have any documents which might be
helpful in stoping some of this pollution please----please! feel free
to send it to me.



Subject: PCB Pollution and Native Communities:  Sources of Information &
         Contacts (UPDATED VERSION)
   Greetings to NCCN members and to the world!  Here is the information
on PCB pollution I promised in my last major broadcast.
   I am sending this information on PCB pollution because PCB's are be-
ing found in the blood of people living in Native communities in Ontario.
Hopefully this information will be helpful in locating the sources of
PCB's and eliminating them from the environment.  It may also be useful
for locating various pollution "Hot Spots" near Native communities in

   What are PCB's?  Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB's) are man made che-
micals which have been "widely used in insulation for electric conden-
sers, transformers and as additives for extreme pressure lubricants,
plasticizers, adhesives, paints, etc." (A Study of PCB Blood Levels in
Ontario Reserve Indians).

   "PCB's are of human health concern because of two types of effects
which have been identified in scientific studies.  PCB's are considered
to be cancer causing and have been shown to affect normal fertility,
pregnancy,birth and development of offspring when tested on laboratory
animals." (Guide To Eating Ontario Sport Fish, 1987)
    American researchers found that mothers who ate lake fish that were
contaminated with low levels of PCB's gave birth to babies that had
smaller heads and weigh less than normal babies.  The babies that were
more heavily exposed often had behavioral problems described as
"worrisome".  In the study just mentioned, researchers weren't absolutely  
certain which chemical or combination of chemicals was effecting the
infants because the fish had other chemicals besides PCB's in them

  Scientists disagree on what amounts of PCB's are harmful to humans.  
What ever they eventualy decide; any pollutant which might be causing
babies to be born with smaller heads and lower weights than normal
babies definetly doesn't belong in peoples bodies!!

  On November 10th, 1987 Health and Welfare Canada released a document
called: "A Study of PCB Blood Levels in Ontario Reserve Indians".  This
study analyzed the blood of 601 people from 14 different Native commun-
ities in Ontario.  More than half of those tested had detectable levels
of PCB's in their blood.  At some communities,like Big Trout Lake, levels
"were significantly higher than in other communities and in zone indiv-
iduals exceeded the limits of PCB acceptability as defined by Health and
Welfare Canada."

   Where are the PCB's comming from?  Well--they aren't exactly sure. How
are PCB's getting into the people?  They aren't exactly sure of that ei-
ther.  Some scientists have made some guesses e.g. maybe it comes down 
with the rain or perhaps oil (contaminated with PCB's) was sprayed on
the roads. Nobody really knows yet.

   My own personal research on the matter has revealed several other 
possible sources.  While the following information might not reveal
"the" sources; it may give some useful clues.  It is definetly worth 
checking out!

  Here's what I found: 1) A July 1986 Ontario Ministry of the Environment
report called: "Trace Contaminants in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents" found
very high levels of PCB's in paper industry efluents in Thunder Bay,
Nipigon Bay, Dryden and Marathon.  In the case of Great Lakes Forest Pro-
ducts in Dryden, plant intake was PCB polluted but concentrated prior to
discharge!  In other areas PCB's seemed to be being discharged by the

   So, if they are "concentrated prior to discharge" at the Dryden mill 
then it means that there is some PCB source upstream from the mill. 
Perhaps it is a leaking dump site or PCB storage site or maybe some
kind of municipal efluent from the town of Dryden?

   2)  I obtained a document called "Ontario Ministry of the Environment
Waste Disposal Site Inventory".  This document lists all the known toxic
waste dump sites in Ontario.  It gives a map reference for each dump site,
a general idea of how hazardous it is, the date it closed (if it shut 
down) and lots of other useful information and maps.
   Sure enough, there was a dump site called Contact Bay listed. There is
a water body called Contact Bay upstream from the pulp and paper mill at
Dryden!  Is there a link?  I don't know yet but it is definetly worth 

  This document would also be extremely useful to find out exactly where 
these hazardous dumps are in relation to Native communities.  Once they
are located, it could then be discovered exactly what is contained in
them and if the substances are dangerous to people or to the environment.
The next step would be to see if they are leaking and if there are any 
communities that might be effected by such a leak.  Clean-up operations
could then be launched where required.         

   3)  Another place to look for PCB's is at the PCB storage sites in Ont-
ario.  There are 988 known PCB storage sites in the province. 308 of these
sites are clasified as major and contain 1,000 litres or more of PCB
liquid waste.  All of these sites are listed in a document called "Ontario
Inventory of Approved PCB Storage Sites" released in September 1988.  This
document gives exact site locations, addresses, company names and indicates
wether it is a major or minor storage facility.  Big Trout Lake is 
mentioned and some of the other sites listed may be in the vacinity of 
other Native communities or their traditional lands.

   4)  Another document I found useful was called: "Guide to Eating Ontario
Sport Fish".  This document lists many of the lakes in Ontario and, for
each lake listed, it explains which fish have pollution in them and says
if they can be eaten or not.  This document also gives lists of what
pollutants the fish were tested for e.g. at Clay Lake (downstream from
the paper mill at Dryden) tests looking for PCB's, mercury, mirex and
pesticides were done on several species of fish.  The fish should not
be eaten because of the pollution.

   Well--I hope this information is of use to you.  Here is a list of the 
sources of information I mentioned and places where you can get them.
Also, here is an extensive list of useful contact people for you.


1)  "A Study of PCB Blood Levels in Ontario Reserve Indians" - Final 
        Draft, November 10,1987
     By: Health and Welfare Canada, Medical Services Branch, Ontario 

To obtain a copy of this document write or telephone: Health and Welfare
Canada, Medical Services Branch, Jeanne Mance Bldg., de l'Eglantine St.,
Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0L3
Telephone: (613) 957-7702 or (416) 965-3101

2) a)  "Trace Contaminants in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents"-July 1986
        By: Ontario Ministry of the Environment 

   b)  "Ontario Inventory of Approved PCB Storage Sites"-September 1988
        By: Ontario Ministry of the Environment

   c)  "Ontario Ministry of the Environment Waste Disposal Site Inventory
        Revised 1988"#246
        By: Ontario Ministry of the Environment
   d)  "Guide to Eating Ontario Sport Fish"
        By: Ontario Ministry of the Environment & Ontario Ministry of 
            Natural Resources

To obtain these four documents write or telephone: Public Information 
Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 135 St.Claire Ave.West,
1st Floor, Toronto Ontario, Canada M4V 1P5
Telephone: (416) 323-4321

3) "No Margin of Safety: A Preliminary Report on Dioxin Pollution and
the Need For Emergency Action in the Pulp and Paper Industry"1987
By: C. van Strum & P. Merrell, 100 pp., $10.00

-this document details what chemical pollutants are comming out of
 Pulp and Paper Mills in Ontario, Canada and the U.S.A. and explains
 the effects on people, plants and animals. The main emphasis is on
 cancer causing dioxin e.g. at the Pulp and Paper Mill at Fort Frances
 Ontario and in fish downstream

To obtain this useful document write or telephone: A. Jay Palter,Green-
peace(Toronto), 578 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6G 1k1
Telephone: (416) 538-6470, FAX: (416) 968-9522 Note: if you FAX a message
please make sure you put"Attn:Greenpeace-Toronto" on your FAX message

4) There is also some Federal Government information which is very useful.
At Environment Canada they have lists and site reports for various types 
of Federal Government dump sites. Also; they have lists and site reports
for dump sites at Indian Bands. All this information is on computer and
the titles to ask for are: "Federal Facilities: PCB Storage Inventory" and
"Federal Facilities: Landfill Inventory"(this second one gives information
on dumps on or near Indian Bands).

For Free Computer Print-Outs of this information write or telephone: 
Craig D. Wardlaw, P.Eng., Project Engineer, Environmental Contaminants and
Nuclear Programs Division Environmental Protection, Ontario Region Conserva-
tion and Protection Service, 25 St. Clair Avenue East, 7th Floor, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada M4T 1M2
Telephone: (416) 973-1081        

   If there is any problem with obtaining any of the documents menti-
oned in this bulletin, please contact me and I'll provide a list of
other places where you can get them.

                           CONTACT PEOPLE

1)  Julia MacCrae, Health/Environment Worker, Nishnawbe-Aski Nation,
    14 College Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1K2
    Telephone: (416) 920-2376
    Telex: #06-218237
    FAX: (416)920-1765

- health & environmental worker at Nishnawbe-Aski Nation who has lots
  of information on: PCB's, their health effects on people, and about 
  Native communities presently effected by PCB's

2)  Maureen Simpkins, Environment Worker, Chiefs of Ontario,
    22 College Street, 2nd Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1K2
    Telephone: (416) 972-0212
    FAX: (416) 972-0217 

- environmental worker for Chiefs of Ontario office, has lots of inform-
  ation on PCB's and other environmental issues effecting Native people
  in Ontario

3)  Allan Roy, Environmental Worker, Union of Ontario Indians,
    27 Queen Street East, 2nd Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 1R5
    Telephone: (416) 366-3527
    FAX: (416)366-4967
- environmental worker at Union of Ontario Indians who knows a lot 
  about environmental issues effecting Native peoples

4)  Michael C. Williams, Walpole Island Research Centre, RR#3,
 Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada N8A 4K9
 Telephone: (519) 627-8131 or (519) 627-1475

- environmental worker for Walpole Island Indian Reserve who knows alot
  about toxic pollutants and their effects
5)  Mr. Henry Lickers, Mohawk Council, P.O. Box 579, Cornwall, Ontario
    Canada K6H 5T3
    Telephone: (613) 575-2250

-environmental expert for the Mohawk people who knows alot about toxic
 chemicals e.g. PCB's, flouride, heavy metals etc.

6)  Rudy Bruyere, Treaty #3 Health Policy Analyst, Grand Council Treaty
    #3 Association of Ojibway Chiefs, Central Office, P.O. Box 1720,
    Kenora, Ontario Canada P9N 3X7
    Telephone: (807) 548-4214 or (807) 274-7731

-health expert for the Treaty #3 area who monitors links between
 pollution and health problems of Native communities within the
 Treaty #3 jurisdiction

7)  Allan Penn, Cree Regional Authority, Quebec, Canada
    Telephone: (514) 861-5837

- head of environmental protection for the Cree Regional Authority in
  James Bay area of Quebec,knows effects of all kinds of toxic 
  pollutants, e.g., mercury and cadmium pollution

8) Dr. John Buschek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Telephone: (613) 744-2589

- a chemist who knows all about toxic pollutants like PCB's

9) Pamela Stokes, Professor of Botany and Director, Institute for
   Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto
   Telephone: (416) 978-6527

- a botanist who knows alot about effects of pollutants on
  people and on the rest of the natural world

10) Joseph E.Cummins, Associate Professor, Genetics, University of 
    Western Ontario, Department of Plant Sciences, Biological &
    Geological Building, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B7
    Telephone: (519) 679-2111 Extension: 6478

- a geneticist who knowes about pollution and its possible
  effects on people and on other parts of the natural world

11) Al Johnson, Ontario Goverment, Water Resources Branch, Toronto
    Ontario, Canada
    Telephone: (416) 323-4914 or (416) 323-4927  

- can provide fish studies, he has been studying toxics in fish
  for many years and can give a different perspective on PCB's

12) Sarah Miller, Canadian Environmental Law Association, 243 Queen
    Street West, 4th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 1Z4
    Telephone: (416) 977-2410

- can provide alot of information on PCB's and many other pollution
  issues. Also, Sarah can give legal strategies on how to stop a
  polluter from polluting, environmental assesments, and much more
  information of that type. She is currently involved with Michipicoten
  Indian Band in trying to stop a hydro-electric scheme which is linked
  to water diversion schemes

13) A. Jay Palter, Great Lakes Campaign Researcher, Greenpeace-Toronto,
    578 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6G 1K1
    Telephone: (416) 538-6470
    FAX: (416) 968-9522, Note: if you send a FAX please make sure you
    address it "ATTN: Greenpeace-Toronto"
- An excellent contact, at this large environmental group, who is familiar
  with many issues e.g. pollution from the pulp and paper industry, toxics,
  & Great Lakes environmental issues.

14) Vanessa Alexander, Pollution Probe, 12 Madison Avenue, Toronto, Ontario,
    Canada M5R 2S1
    Telephone: (416) 926-1907
    FAX: (416) 926-1601

- Vanessa is an expert on toxic pollution and has lots, and lots of info.
  on PCB's

15) Glen Milbury, Industrial Waste Co-ordinator for Peel Region, 3190
    Mavis Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5C 1T9
    Telephone: (416) 566-1511

- an expert on industrial waste who knows alot about PCB's and other
  hazardous waste   

16) Georges Erasmus, National Chief, Assembly of First Nations,
    47 Clarence Street, Suite 300, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 9K1
    Telephone: (613) 236-0673, Telex: 053-3202, FAX: (613) 238-5780

- the Assembly of First Nations represents thousands of Native 
  people across Canada. The AFN has begun groundwork for an Envir-
  onment Committee to tackle environmental issues effecting Native
  peoples. Another contact at the A.F.N. is Laurie Montour who is
  an environmental expert who used to work for the Walpole Island
  Research Centre.

17) Eva Johnson, Kahnawake Environment, P.O. Box 720, Kahnawake,
    Quebec, Canada J0L 1BO
    Telephone: (514) 635-0600

 - Eva is an environmental worker for Kahnawake First Nation who
   is very knowledgable on many environmental issues e.g. recycling,
   James Bay Project Phases 1 and 2, and she has many useful contacts
   at many First Nations
   All of these contact people have lots of contacts and have, or 
know how to get, documents on: PCB's, waste dump sites, municipal 
pollution discharges, PCB storage sites, fish studies and human
health studies as well as many other relevant topics.

   Well--that's all I have to send you today!  Hope you can do
print outs of this broadcast on PCB's and maybe send copies to
as many people as possible?  A lot of people and groups aren't
"ON-Line" and the above information would be useful to a lot
of the bands, Native organizations and Nations.  Any help on this
would be much apreciated!!!!

   Also, it sure would be good to get some mail from somebody!
So please feel free to send me a "Dear John Letter"!  IS THERE
ANYBODY OUT THERE?!                                   -------- 
                               For Land and Life,

                               John Hummel 


P.S.  My mailing address is: John Hummel, 126 Ridley Blvd., Toronto, 
      Ontario Canada M5M 3L9.  Please feel free to send me a letter or 
      information or secret documents, etc., etc.!!!!  Bye till next 

                                 DEATH by DECREE:

                             An Overview of our PCB Mess

               The widespread contamination  of  Bloomington  by  PCBs  and
          other  toxic  waste  prompted  the EPA in 1985 to name the town's
          cleanup "the largest hazardous waste settlement ever".   Westing-
          house  Electric Corporation (WEC) produced capacitors using PCB's
          as a dielectric fluid in it's Bloomington plant from  1958  until
          1977,  when  such  use  was  banned.  During this time capacitors
          which failed quality  control,  as  well  as  PCB-laden  oil  and
          materials  were dumped into local landfills and PCB laden oil was
          piped directly into the municipal sewage system.  Many  of  these
          capacitors were salvaged by local residents who sold their copper
          to a local scrap metal yard and used the PCB-laden oil  for  dust
          control.   The city gave the contaminated sludge from the munici-
          pal sewage system to area residents and farmers to use as fertil-
          izer.   This  resulted  in  perhaps thousands of PCB contaminated
          sites in the county, ranging from four  sites  currently  on  the
          CERCLA  National  Priorities  List,  to sites which have not been
          locatable under the city's reservoir.

               Of these sites (about 180  of  which  have  been  positively
          identified),  only  six, amounting to approximately 650,000 cubic
          yards of contaminated soil are to be cleaned up under  the  court
          ordered  Consent  Decree  agreed upon by the City of Bloomington,
          WEC, Indiana Department of Environmental Management, DOJ, and the
          EPA.  Notably  missing  from  the  cleanup are the grounds of the
          Westinghouse plant and of the Fell Iron and  Metal  works  (FIM),
          contaminated by the PCB-laden capacitors sold to it by salvagers.
          Although more sites need to be added to the cleanup, the  Consent
          Decree  stipulates  that all parties must agree to the inclusion,
          and WEC is not willing to include any more,  having  refused  FIM
          addition  in  early  1988.  Already more than 12,000 residents --
          more than voted for mayor -- have signed a petition  against  the
          Consent  Decree  because  among  other  reasons it only cleans up
          those six sites.

               How are these toxins to be destroyed?  WEC, by court  order,
          is  to  build  the  nation's first garbage fueled hazardous waste
          incinerator in Bloomington - a  completely  unproven  technology.
          This  is the same type of garbage incinerator which the EPA ruled
          out in Houston  because  it  "could  add  to  dioxin  emissions".
          Furthermore,  this cleanup does not even consider numerous toxins
          which WEC memos indicate may also  have  been  dumped,  including
          cyanide, vinyl chloride, toluene, and xylene.

               To add insult to  injury,  by  agreeing  with  this  Consent
          Decree  the EPA is sidestepping its own regulations and recommen-
          dations.  They have agreed to allow these hazardous wastes to  be
          stored  in  the  ground for approximately another 15 years, while
          William Miner of EPA Region V  has  stated  that  "the  cavernous
          limestone  setting  [would  not] guarantee on-site containment of
          the PCB contamination".  In the mean time these  dump  sites  are
          already leaching toxins into local streams, some of which require
          their own cleanups under Superfund.

               Finally, the matter of who  pays  for  this.   The  EPA  has
          transferred part of the cleanup cost, estimated to amount to over
          $100,000,000, to county taxpayers by allowing WEC to collect  the
          nation's  first RCRA tipping fees for municipal waste to fuel the
          PCB incineration.  In addition WEC intends to build an industrial
          park  in  the  vicinity of the incinerator to which it intends to
          sell steam and electricity cogenerated by the plant.

               What  local  groups,  including  PATI  (People  Against  the
          Incinerator),  MCEC  (Monroe County Environmental Coalition), and
          INPIRG (Indiana Public Interest Research Group) are  calling  for
          is 1) studies be done to show the extent of the contamination, 2)
          immediate and proper excavation of  the  contaminated  waste  and
          soil  and  its  storage  in bunkers, much like at Times Beach, 3)
          examination of alternate technologies to destroy the waste,  such
          as pyrolysis, plasma arc, and biodegradation, and 4) public input
          into the choice of technologies.
          For More Information Contact:Charles Daffinger at:(812)339-7354 

   Here is a quote from Dr. David Suzuki which is apropriate for  
these uncertain times. Dr. Suzuki is a journalist,scientist,author,
and famous T.V.personality here in Canada.
     "Native peoples have an attitude in which the humans
      are a part of a much greater picture. They know that
      you don't kick the shit out of nature because you know
      nature is going to bounce back and hit you in the face.
      If we environmentalists care about saving anything, we
      have to throw our lot in totally with native land claims.
      If we succeed, we will save the last vestiges of our
      wilderness, and in the process we will come to realize
      that there is a radically different way of looking at
      the world"-David Suzuki